Famous vineyard sites
International Gateway to Pinots, Riesling, Silvaner & Gewürztraminer
Bockenheim and Schweigen-Rechtenbach are at opposite ends of the Deutsche Weinstraße (German Wine Road), the 80-km, north-south route that winds through the Pfalz wine-growing region. Not only does each town boast a massive Weintor (gateway) marking the start/finish of the wine road, but each also has a vineyard named Sonnenberg - a popular appellation for sloping (Berg) sites in the sunny (Sonne) Pfalz, where no fewer than eight sites bear this name.
This famous site is the southernmost of the Pfälzer “Sonnenberg” sites, and quite unique since it extends a few kilometers beyond the German border to Wissembourg in Alsace. Many wine-growing families in Schweigen-Rechtenbach have cultivated vines in this “border zone” for generations. German growers with possessions between Schweigen-Rechtenbach and Wissembourg are permitted to market the wines produced from their “French” grapes under the German appellation Sonnenberg. Although this practice does not conform with EU regulations concerning the origin of quality wines produced in a specified region (e.g. German QbA and QmP wines), it is an exception sanctioned by the German wine law. Nearly all French wine-growers in and around Wissembourg deliver their crop to the cooperative winery in Cleebourg.
With the passing of the wine law in 1971, many small sites in Schweigen-Rechtenbach, Oberotterbach and Schweighofen were renamed Sonnenberg, thereby creating quite a large individual site (300 ha in Germany and ca. 150 ha in France). The soils consist of lime-rich marl, loam and loess, as well as weathered sandstone and mixtures of sand with loam and/or loess. In general, they are deep, retain water well, and heat up quickly. About 2/3 of the site is fairly flat to gently sloping; 1/3 is steep. The site is planted primarily with white and red Pinots (Grauburgunder, Weißburgunder, Auxerrois, Chardonnay; and Spätburgunder) and the traditional white varieties Riesling, Silvaner and Gewürztraminer.
The original (pre-1971) Sonnenberg site is a south-facing hillside behind Schweigen proper, adjacent to the French border. It is part of today’s (much larger) Sonnenberg site that Friedrich Becker - named “shooting star of 2006” by the German wine guide Gault Millau - cultivates with 30-year-old Riesling vines. The lime-rich marl yields smooth, full-bodied Rieslings with a moderate acidity.
Becker is especially well-known for fine Spätburgunders, the best of which are from the Kammerberg, a tiny, steep site situated across the border. Thanks to the soil structure – a pure layer of limestone underlies a mixture of lime-rich marl and clay – and excellent southern exposure, Kammerberg Spätburgunder wines are very ripe, with firm tannins and great longevity. Even centuries ago, the monks in Wissembourg recognized the potential of the site, for it consistently yielded outstanding wines. They came to be known as Kammerweine, since they were stored in a special Kammer, or chamber, reserved for the abbot’s finest wines.
A Quick Look at the Past...
Vines have been cultivated in the southern Pfalz/northern Alsace at least since Roman times. Viticulture declined in the aftermath of invasions by the Alemanni, a group of Germanic tribes. In The Wines of Alsace, British wine writer Tom Stevenson credits Clovis, King of the Franks, as being the 'indirect’ catalyst of the region’s viticultural revival. In a battle near Wissembourg in AD 496, he defeated the Alemanni and forced them to move east of the Rhine. In the same year, Clovis was baptized and henceforth, fostered the spread Christianity in his kingdom. This gave rise to the establishment of dozens of monasteries in the region. They became major vineyard owners and wine was an important source of income. The earliest documented mentions of many villages and vineyards in the southern Pfalz/northern Alsace, for example, are in 8th-century deeds of gift to the Benedictine abbey in Wissembourg.
...and the Future
Until the 1980s, the Südliche Weinstraße (Southern Wine Road, from Neustadt to the French border) was often associated with quantity rather than quality, and the majority of wines were sold in cask – as anonymous components destined for mass-produced, commercial blends and/or inexpensive varietals. Slowly but surely, exceptional growers and their estate-bottled wines developed a profile, overall quality standards improved at estates and cooperative wineries, and modern marketing strategies helped reposition the region’s image. It was in this spirit that five like-minded friends decided in 1990 to pool their viticultural savvy and collectively market their wines as Fünf Freunde aus der Südpfalz (fuenf-winzer.de). They captured the attention of the trade and the press at home and abroad, and thus helped put the Südpfalz on the map for serious wine lovers.
Tips for Tourists
- Germany’s oldest Weinlehrpfad (1969) - an educational wine pathway signposted with viticultural information, including a demonstration plot showing Kammertbau, the method used by the Romans to support/train vines. There is a cabin, where wines can be purchased, on the weekends from May to October. (bad-bergzaberner-land.de)
- Deutsches Weintor (1936) - The German Wine Gateway that marks the start/finish of Germany’s first wine route (1935), Deutsche Weinstraße. The observation platform offers an excellent view over the Sonnenberg site. A restaurant and a Vinothek (wine shop) are on the premises. (http://www.weintor.de/)
- The Weinstube at Weingut Jülg not only serves the estate’s wines, but also homemade cheese, sausage and ham. (weingut-juelg.de)
Wissembourg (4 km south of Schweigen)
- Hostellerie au Cygne - hotel and restaurant that offers wines from the “five friends”. (hostellerie-cygne.com)
Landau (21 km northeast of Schweigen)
- Weintage der Südlichen Weinstraße is an annual, comprehensive presentation of more than 500 wines by 94 Southern Weinstraße winegrowers and winegrowers' cooperatives in june (suedlicheweinstrasse.de)